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Definitions

ECE Glossary and Levels of Evidence 

 CONTENTS

(links to source documents are in the postings below)

  1. Child Care and Early Education Glossary - Research Connections 
  2. Early Literacy Knowledge and Instruction - National Institute for Literacy 
  3. English Language and Literacy Terms - Child Trends 
  4. Definition of "Evidence Based" in Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)
  5. Levels of Evidence - Social Innovation Fund
  6. Glossary - New York City Child Care and Referral Consortium 
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Post #2
 Early Literacy Knowledge and Instruction 
National Institute for Literacy

  Literacy. All the activities involved in speaking, listening, reading, writing, and appreciating both spoken and written language.

■  Early Literacy Skills. Skills that begin to develop in the preschool years, such as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, letter writing, print knowledge, and oral language. Note: Early literacy skills are sometimes called “emergent,” “precursor,” “foundational,” or “predictive” literacy skills to distinguish them from more conventional literacy skills, such as decoding, oral reading, fluency, reading comprehension, writing, and spelling.

 

■  Alphabet Knowledge. Knowing the names and sounds associated with printed letters.

 

Concepts (Conventions) about Print. The knowledge of print conventions (e.g., left-right, front-back) and concepts (e.g., book cover, author, and text).

 

Conventional Literacy Skills.  More mature skills such as decoding, oral reading, fluency, reading comprehension, writing, and spelling that are the focus of instruction in elementary and secondary school students.

  Decoding.  The ability to apply knowledge of letter-sound relationships, including knowledge of letter patterns, to correctly pronounce written words.

 

  Environmental Print.  The print of everyday life, such as the letters, numbers, shapes, and colors found in logos and signs for products and stores (e.g., Coke and McDonald’s).

 

■  Onset-Rime. Parts of monosyllabic words in spoken language that are smaller than syllables—onset is the initial consonant sound of a syllable (the onset of ‘bag’ is ‘b’); rime is the part of a syllable that contains the vowel and all that follows it (the rime of ‘bag’ is ‘-ag’). 14

 

■  Oral Language.  The ability to produce or comprehend spoken language, including vocabulary or grammar.

 

■  Oral Reading Fluency.  The ability to accurately and quickly read a series of words or sentences.

 

■  Phoneme.  The smallest unit of sound that changes the meanings of spoken words (e.g., by changing the first phoneme in bat from /b/ to /p/, the word ‘bat’ changes to ‘pat’).

Phonological Awareness.  The ability to detect, manipulate, or analyze the auditory aspects of spoken language (including the ability to distinguish or segment words, syllables, or phonemes) independent of meaning.

 

Phonological Memory.  The ability to remember spoken information for a short period of time.

 

Print Knowledge.  A skill reflecting a combination of elements of alphabet knowledge, concepts about print, and early decoding.

 

Rapid Automatized Naming.  The ability to name rapidly a sequence of random letters, digits, objects, or colors.

 

■  Reading Comprehension. The ability to understand and gain meaning from text.

 

Syllable. A part of a word that contains a vowel or, in spoken language, a vowel sound (e.g., e-vent, news-pa-per).

 

■  Visual Processing.  The ability to match or discriminate visually presented symbols.

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Levels of Evidence - Social Innovation Fund 

The Social Innovation Fund (SIF) relies on a framework that organizes evidence levels into three categories: preliminary, moderate, and strong. This framework is very similar to those used by other federal evidence-based programs such as the Investing in Innovation (i3) program at the Department of Education.

Preliminary evidence means the model has evidence based on a reasonable hypothesis and supported by credible research findings. Examples of research that meet the standards include: 1) outcome studies that track participants through a program and measure participants’ responses at the end of the program; and 2) third-party pre- and post-test research that determines whether participants have improved on an intended outcome.

Moderate evidence means evidence from previous studies on the program, the designs of which can support causal conclusions (i.e., studies with high internal validity) but have limited generalizability (i.e., moderate external validity) or vice versa - studies that only support moderate causal conclusions but have broad general applicability. Examples of studies that would constitute moderate evidence include: (1) at least one well-designed and well-implemented experimental or quasiexperimental study supporting the effectiveness of the practice strategy, or program, with small sample sizes or other conditions of implementation or analysis that limit generalizability; or (2) correlational research with strong statistical controls for selection bias and for discerning the influence of internal factors.

Strong evidence means evidence from previous studies on the program, the designs of which can support causal conclusions (i.e., studies with high internal validity), and that, in total, include enough of the range of participants and settings to support scaling up to the state, regional, or national level (i.e., studies with high external validity). The following are examples of strong evidence: (1) more than one well-designed and well-implemented experimental study or well-designed and well-implemented quasi-experimental study that supports the effectiveness of the practice, strategy, or program; or (2) one large, well-designed and well-implemented randomized controlled, multisite trial that supports the effectiveness of the practice, strategy, or program.

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Child Care
 
NOTE:  This was developed NYCRRC.  It no longer appears to be posted.  It is tailored to NYC but most of the service descriptions are universal.  Finally, it may be outdated.  That said, it provides a great overview of the world of childcare.  
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Glossary
CCR&R Agency:  “CCR&R” stands for Child Care Resource & Referral. A CCR&R agency is an organization that provides an array of child care services that are helpful to parents, child care providers, employers, and the community-at-large. The New York City CCR&R Consortium consists of five agencies:
  • Center for Children’s Initiatives,
  • Child Development Support Corporation,
  • Chinese-American Planning Council,
  • The Committee for Hispanic Children and Families, Inc. (CHCF), and the
  • Day Care Council of New York, Inc.
Family Child Care: Care in the personal residence of an individual who has registered with the New York State Office of Children & Family Services (OCFS) through the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and has met specific health and safety requirements. Family Child Care providers can care for up to six children ages 6 weeks to 12 years. No more than two children can be under age 2.
Group Family Child Care:  Care in the personal residence of an individual who has registered with the New York State Office of Children & Family Services (OCFS) through the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and has met specific health and safety requirements. Group Family Child Care providers can care for up to twelve children, with the help of an assistant. They can care for children from 6 weeks to 12 years. No more than four children can be under age 2.
Child (Day) Care Centers: Care, not in a personal residence, for more than six children at a time. A license is required for any program serving more than three children for more than 30 days in a 12 month period.
Infant & Toddler Child Care Programs: Care for children from 8 weeks to age 3. Infant & Toddler Child Care providers must obtain a special license to serve this age group. Providers must be licensed by the New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene, according to specific infant and toddler regulatory standards. These programs can be located in same building as a pre-school center. For information on regulatory standards regarding child/staff ratios, teacher training requirements, and facilities pertaining to Infant & Toddler Care programs, visit the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
Preschool Programs:  Offer year-round, full-day and part-day care. While they primarily serve 3 to 5 year- olds, some programs serve children under the age of 2. They must be licensed by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.
After-school Programs:  Care for five to twelve children that usually opens at the end of the school day and closes at 6:00 p.m. They may also be open during school breaks, holidays, and summer vacation. For information on regulatory standards regarding child/staff ratios, teacher training requirements, and facilities pertaining to after-school programs, please visit the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.
Nursery Schools: Care for three hours a day or less. In New York City, these programs are regulated by the City Department of Health. Nursery schools may voluntarily register with the State Education Department (SED).
Universal Pre-Kindergartens:  Funded by New York State through the New York City Department of Education, these programs provide free part-day services targeted primarily to 4 year-olds. They are provided in public schools & early childhood programs in the community. Some programs offer extended day services to families.
Head Start Centers: Federally-funded programs targeted for preschool-age children from low income families. They offer both part and full-day services, which are free to income eligible families. Head Start Centers primarily serve 3 and 4 year-olds, while Early Head Start Centers serve children under the age of three.
Non-traditional Hours Care: Care provided outside the typical child care hours of 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., Monday through Friday. This includes evening and overnight care, as well as care on weekends and school holidays.
Special Needs Care: Specialized care for physically handicapped and chronically ill children (0-21 years of age, as defined by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene) provided to help minimize the disability and maximize rehabilitative services.
Early Intervention Programs: Programs provide many different types of therapeutic and support services to eligible infants and toddlers with developmental disabilities or delays and their families, including family education and counseling; home visits; parent support groups; special instruction; speech pathology and audiology; occupational therapy; physical therapy; psychological services; service coordination; nursing services; nutrition services; social work services; vision services; and assistive technology devices and services.
To be eligible for services, children must be under 3 years of age and have a confirmed disability or established developmental delay, as defined by the State, in one or more of the following areas of development: physical, cognitive, communication, social-emotional, and/or adaptive. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene is the lead agencyin New York City, while the New York State Department of Health coordinates the statewide network of services.
Summer Camps:  Programs that operate for 8-12 weeks throughout the summer months and can be found in a variety of settings, including city, country, or suburban areas. Summer camps are regulated by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Some programs offer transportation to and from their sites.
Nanny Placement Agencies:  Agencies that specialize in the placement of nannies with families. Nannies are caregivers who are employed by a family to handle all tasks associated with the care of children. Their duties are generally restricted to child care and domestic tasks. They may or may not have had any formal training, but are often widely experienced. A nanny's work schedule usually ranges from 40 to 60 hours per week.
Licensed Exempt Care:  Care, usually provided in a child care provider's home, for fewer than 3 non-related children. Standard regulations set by the New York State Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS) apply to licensed exempt care providers serving families receiving child care subsidies. Licensed Exempt Care providers are not regulated by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.
Educational Incentive Program (EIP): A scholarship program which helps child care providers pay for high-quality training and education, which they need to provide quality care to children. EIP has two separate application submission periods intended to provide a more balanced allocation of funds for the entire scholarship year.
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